News, Events and Culture

19-21 Coleman Place - The Arcade

The Arcade (Coleman)

Building Details

Building Name: The Arcade (latterly Noodles n Dumplings)
Address: 19-21 Coleman Place
Construction date:  1906
Architect:  Chas Blackbourn
Builder:  Chas Blackbourn
District Plan Category: Street Character 4
Building number: 98
Heritage NZ Category: Nil

Physical and Social History 

In 1906, the new building at 19-21 Coleman Place and the nearly new building at 256 Cuba Street were linked together by the firm JA Nash & Co Ltd and christened 'The Arcade'. Later this half of The Arcade appears to have been converted to two shops, and these were amalgamated into one shop again sometime since the 1970s. The upstairs hall has been used for social gatherings and also as a billiard room. Its current use is uncertain.

The Designer: Charles William Blackbourn
This building was designed by Charles William Blackbourn, a builder and contractor who had studied architecture and who designed most of his largest building contracts. He was born in Okato, Taranaki, in 1876, before serving a building apprenticeship in Palmerston North and Wanganui under Mr Coupe. He worked as a journeyman until starting his own business in Palmerston North in 1900. By the time Volume 6 of the Cyclopedia on New Zealand was published in 1908, Blackbourn employed forty staff in relation to his business and his contracts. Another of his buildings that survives is the façade of the former His Majesty's Theatre (later Ballroom Astoria) in George Street, built in 1910.[1]

Prior History
The land, upon which this building stands, was granted on 15 November 1876, as CT WN24/199, to James Harris, a settler of Palmerston North. He leased it to Andrew Steven Bentley for a 7-year term starting 1 March 1883, and in turn the lease was passed to William Bentley, a draper, in 1885, before Harris sold the property to William Gardner, a farmer, in 1889. The property then passed through the hands of Mary Lang of Wellington (1891), Samuel Gardiner (1895), and then in 1897 to Mary Emma Mowlem, wife of Fred Mowlem, a commission agent of Palmerston North.

The property also passed thought the hands of a number of tenants over the years. After Mary Emma Mowlem purchased the property, she leased it to William Murrell Jamieson for a 5-year term starting 8 May 1897. The following year this was transferred to Edwin Grove. In 1903 Grove's lease was renewed for seven years and four weeks, starting 14 December 1903, before being transferred in 1904 to John Reid Graham. This lease was then surrendered early, presumably in anticipation of the new building. The next activity on CT WN24/199 was the Mary Emma Mowlem's 15-year lease of the property to JA Nash & Co Ltd, starting 1 May 1906.

The Bentleys traded as Bentley Bros and were a drapery firm. They leased the two-storied wooden building shown on the site in early photos of this part of The Square, until William Bentley moved the business in 1886. However, the building was not present when the well-known 1877 panorama set of photos was taken.[2] Edwin Grove, the second to last lessee of this building, was a grocer according to PNCC burial records.

The Arcade

Built in 1906, both this building and the one behind it at 256 Cuba Street had a shared history for their first fifteen years. At the start they were leased to the firm JA Nash & Co Ltd and were known as The Arcade. Customers could walk the length of the two buildings between Cuba Street and Coleman Place, with Cuba Street being a very busy shopping street in those days.

Although the previous building on this site had probably simply outlived its usefulness and been demolished, the new Cuba Street building was erected to replace its old wooden predecessor that had been burnt out on 16 August 1905. Although the insurance companies concerned tried to have the damaged building repaired with wood, it was evidently considered too badly damaged - and new buildings in this area were now required to be built of brick.[3]

Property owners in this block had graphic evidence in the form of the first Hotel Royal fire in 1895 and the major Clarendon Hotel fire in 1904, that fires in this block had a history of causing a great deal of damage to more than just the building where the fire started. The 1924 fire that destroyed a number of buildings in the block was to emphasise this. However, there was nothing in the reports on the aforementioned 1905 fire to suggest the old building in this site had been damaged by that fire.

JA Nash & Co Ltd - the Original Tenant
On 1 December 1902, the new firm JA Nash & Co made a special announcement that it had taken over the old-established firm of F Ireland and Co, wholesale and retail merchants of Palmerston North. The firm was to be run by James Alfred Nash, who had already been manager of the Ireland business for many years - on behalf of the estate of Mr F Ireland, who had died in 1893.

Nash had arrived in Palmerston North (from Foxton), and in reports on the 1902 takeover, both local newspapers recorded that (at age 13) Nash had first joined the trade in 1882, when he entered the service of Messrs J Nathan & Co at the Ready Money Store in Palmerston North, which has since developed into that important institution, the UFCA. After nine years' service with that firm, Mr Nash accepted a position as manager for the late Mr F. Ireland, and since the death of that gentleman in 1893, has carried on the business for the executors of the estate. The business under Mr Nash's watchful care has grown from small things to great, until the firm has become a household word throughout the district."[4] 

Nash's obituary later added, in relation to JA Nash & Co Ltd that "A store in Bunnythorpe was conducted in conjunction with it (ie. the main shop in The Square) and branches were also opened in Coleman Place and in Foxton."[5]

Nash's partner in the new business was Irelands' long-time accountant, Henry Stratford Porteous, who had arrived from England in about 1878 aged 16 and settled in Collingwood, where he farmed and was later a schoolteacher. He arrived in Palmerston North in 1890, and before long began working for F Ireland & Co. Porteous' obituary described JA Nash & Co Ltd as having been a wine and spirits merchant.[6]

The Arcade, however, was an amalgamation of JA Nash & Co Ltd and the firm The Wellington and Manawatu Hardware Company. This firm had leased the new Cuba Street building about three months before The Arcade development was complete.

The Wellington and Manawatu Hardware Company
The Manawatu Daily Times of 26 October 1905 published JS Watchorn & Co's notice advising that they had purchased the business of Wilson, Thompson & Co, and that they would begin selling that company's "full range of general ironmongery" from that same day. The new Watchorn business was described as "wholesale and general ironmongers, of George Street.[7]

The Evening Standard of 17 March 1906 then announced that Watchorn's business, the Wellington and Manawatu Hardware Company, had landed 150 bedsteads and cots, and "being short of room in our present premises we shall be showing and offering these tomorrow & following days at the NEW BRICK PREMISES opposite (the) Working Men's Club, Cuba Street."[8]

Watchorn and Sutton leased the property in their own names for about six months, before the lease was transferred to Messrs JA Nash & Co Ltd, which then leased the property its own name until 1908.

The 1902 Wise's Directory lists Leonard Sutton as a storekeeper at Collingwood and Golden Ridge. He had previously lived in Palmerston North, before being in business in Nelson, Woodville, and other places, and until (May 1906) represented the well-known firm of JH Cock and Co, of Wanganui. Sutton was to manage the new shop. Possibly he was also the person of the same name who was a Rongotea storekeeper by 1914.[9]

John Samuel Watchorn was a very well known early resident of Palmerston North. He had been apprenticed in the drapery trade in England and arrived in New Zealand in 1880, aged 22. He settled in Palmerston North in 1883, and began working for Messrs Joseph Nathan & Co's Ready Money Store. This firm became the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association in 1893, at which time he became manager of the firm's drapery, clothing and boot departments. His 1933 obituary recorded that many of the town's prominent businessmen of that time had received their early training under him.

In 1899, he and his family returned to England to settle, but two years later had returned. He then set up the Victoria House Co in The Square, on the future site of (the former) PDC department store. He duly disposed of this business and later started another millinery  and drapery in a different building that came to be associated with this family for some years, before giving that up also in 1917. His obituary did not mention his connection to the firms The Wellington and Manawatu Hardware Co and JA Nash & Co Ltd, or to The Arcade.[10]

The Official Opening
The Arcade was officially opened by the Mayor, Maurice Cohen, on 6 June 1906. The upstairs area of the end Coleman Place building had been converted into a tearoom for the occasion, and had been decorated with flags and other such trappings. A very large number of people were also present to witness the event, including many Borough Councillors.

The commodious two-storied brick structure had been built for Messrs JA Nash & Co Ltd, and during the ceremony the mayor praised Mr Nash for his achievements, including that his role as president of the local Chamber of Commerce. Nash, in turn, explained the current structure of the business and the backgrounds of his business partners. The new business was an amalgamation of those previously carried on by Messrs Watchorn & Sutton (the Wellington & Manawatu Hardware Co), and Mr Porteous and himself. After all the praise was duly bestowed, a dainty afternoon tea was served to those present on a lavish scale. As its consumption was to the seductive strains of music (provided by Messrs A McMinn and F Meyrick), a highly enjoyable time was spent. The new building was then described: 

The new structure is on one of the best 'stands' in the town from a business point of view. Its chief frontage (83 feet) is to Coleman Place, but as it runs right through to Cuba Street its value may be easily estimated. The total length of the shop from street to street is some 155 feet. The Coleman Place end is two stories in height, the remainder of the building being one storied.

The principal end is, of course, that nearest the Square. Here the passer-by is struck by the two great plate-glass windows, which afford an unexampled opportunity of displaying various wares. One, that on the left of the entrance, is at present devoted entirely to the firm's famous Temple brand of tea. This window has been most artistically dressed by one of the employees, Mr Barron, there being a figure pushing a barrow full of tea and bearing the appropriate legend 'We push tea.'

The other window contains a very fine assortment of building tools, clocks, lamps etc. The front shop itself contains two departments, the grocery being on the left and the ironmongery on the right. The fixtures are well designed and substantially built, and appear most suitable for the purpose. A good effect is produced by the insertion of mirrors at intervals. Midway along the grocery side is a desk for the cashier, being provided with all the necessary openings for working from various parts of the shop. The accountant's office is placed at the end of the ironmongery department. The display of goods coming under the latter heading is undoubtedly one of the most extensive in town. It will be under the control of Messrs W White and EW Simmons, who recently had control of the Hardware Company's business in George Street. Upstairs there is the spacious apartment wherein the firm will store its groceries. Here also the tea packing, quite a big affair, will be conducted.

The Cuba Street end will at an early date be utilised for the crockery part of the business, and also for the storage of the heavy lines of bulk ironmongery. The whole structure is in the form of an arcade, as customers may walk uninterrupted from street to street. The establishment is under the experienced management of Mr L Sutton, a former resident of Palmerston. Latterly he has been engaged in business in Nelson, Woodville, and other places, and until last month represented the well-known firm of JH Cock & Co, of Wanganui. The establishment next to Mr Pegden will be conducted as hitherto.

The front of the shop (the two-storied portion) is the property of Mrs F Mowlem, and has been taken on a lengthy lease by the firm. The contract for its erection was placed in the hands of Mr Chas Blackbourn, the well-known local builder, and has been carried out in an eminently satisfactory manner by him. Mr Blackbourn also constructed the numerous and intricate fixtures in a good style and with commendable promptitude.

Mr James Nash, the managing director of the firm, will remain in charge of the old premises, together with Mr Porteous, the secretary.

Altogether the new structure is a credit to the town, and one of which Palmerston may well be proud. The enterprise of its owners will doubtless be amply rewarded.[11]

Despite his plans for the new Coleman Place-Cuba Street shop in June 1906, Nash sold his shops in 1907 and became a valuer, estate and insurance agent for a firm entitled Messrs Nash & Lovelock. His biography in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Vol 4, mostly follows his subsequent extensive career from Palmerston North Borough Councillor (1907), to Mayor 1908-1923, and then Member of Parliament (1919-1935).[12]

The cause of the business' sudden demise has not been researched, however, in January 1908, the firm LD Paterson announced that it had taken over JA Nash & Co Ltd's Wine and Spirit business. At the same time, JA Nash & Co Ltd still advertised its 'Temple' brand of Ceylon tea on sale at its 'Arcade Stores'.[13]

Leases and Sub-leases
CT WN24/199 records that JA Nash & Co Ltd leased the property for a fifteen-year term starting 1 April 1906, and this lease follows a very similar pattern for both ends of The Arcade.

In June 1908, HS Porteous announced that he had commenced business as a grocer in the premises in The Square formerly occupied by JA Nash & Co Ltd. At the same time, JH Gilchrist, of The Arcade, announced he had taken over from JA Nash & Co, selling groceries and tea in the firm's former Coleman Place shop.[14] Accordingly, CT WN24/199 records that the lease was transferred from JA Nash & Co Ltd to James Henry Gilchrist in July 1908 (Note that the transfer dates are when the records were amended on the CT, and not the date when the transaction actually occurred). Gilchrist later became a land agent according to his cemetery record.[15]

Then in June 1909 the lease was transferred to John Samuel Watchorn. The lease of the Cuba Street end of The Arcade was transferred to him that month also. In October 1909, Watchorn transferred both leases to a partnership of Hugh Duncan Buchanan, Thomas Thompson Hillas and Frederick William Henry Kummer. TT Hillas died on 4 May 1915, aged 65, and was replaced within the partnership by his wife Agnes. The Hillas' were from Mauriceville and are buried at Masterton Cemetery, which also contains many members of the Krummer family. However, their connection to Palmerston North is unclear.[16] This partnership leased the property until the 15-year lease ended in April 1921, at which time the property returned to its owner, Mary Emma Mowlem. Various members of the Mowlem family then owned it until 1966, and no subsequent tenants were listed on the relevant CT WN282/160.[17]

Australian-born Mary Emma Mowlem was the widow of prominent local businessman, Fred Mowlem, who owned buildings nearby at the time of their deaths on 26 August 1926 (aged 76) and 22 November 1925 (aged 79) respectively. Described as being of a quiet and shy disposition, but with time to do those many deeds of kindness which endeared her to all who knew her, and as someone who found opportunity for quiet and unobtrusive service as a member of the local Methodist Church, there is little in her obituary to explain her ownership of this building. However, records from the era show that businessmen often put homes and properties in their wives' names, in order to protect these properties in the event of financial problems with their own businesses.[18]

Nonpareil & the Pees family
The next known occupant of the building was the Nonpareil Cycle & Motor Co - the word 'Nonpareil' meaning "a person or thing having no equal." According to CT WN24/199, Eric Stanley Pees, co-owner of the Nonpareil Cycle & Motor Co, leased this building from 1 November 1911 until 29 April 1921 (the existing 15-year lease was set to end on 30 April 1921.

The Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Vol 6, published in 1908, provided a description of the firm. However, at the time Nonpareil occupied the neighbouring building on the western boundary of this building. The aforementioned article reads: The Nonpareil Cycle and Motor Company (ES Pees and CS Pees): The Square, Palmerston North. Branch business at Wellington and Newtow

This firm, which now stands well to the front in the Wellington province, was established in Ghuznee Street, Wellington, in the year 1902, and the Newtown branch was opened in 1905.

In November 1906, the firm bought out the retail cycle business of Messrs J.B. Clarkson and Company, Limited[19], of Palmerston North, and removed the headquarters of the firm to that town. The premises are amongst the finest in the town; they have 2000 square feet of floor space, are fitted up and appointed in the most up-to-date and attractive manner, and comprise a commodious showroom (capable of displaying 100 machines), a suite of offices, and large workrooms.

This firm make a fine display in their showrooms of the Nonpareil cycle (their own manufacture), also the Centaur and Premier cycles, for which they are agents. A large stock of accessories is kept, and repairing is also done on the premises; in which latter connection the firm have a good reputation for reliable and trustworthy workmanship.

The Wellington and Newtown branch shops are also spacious and up-to-date, and both carry a fine stock of bicycles, etc. The firm do an extensive trade in all parts of the North Island, and employ twenty-five persons. Agencies have been established in Foxton, Otaki, and Shannon."[20]

The article also includes biographies on the owners, London-born brothers Eric Stanley Pees (born 1882) and Charles Sydney Pees (born 1880). ES Pees emigrated to New Zealand aged 16 (c1898), being joined by CS Pees, an engineering draftsman, in 1902. They established their business in Wellington in 1906, before acquiring the Palmerston North branch and turning it into their head office, with ES Pees moving to the town. CS Pees remained in Wellington, where he managed the Wellington branch.[21]

The firm held its official opening in this building on the evening of 17 November 1911, during which, Mr ES Pees described their new and commodious brick business premises, as one of the largest (premises) of their kind in Australasia. In the course of the evening, the Mayor, Mr JA Nash, complimented Pees on acquiring such fine premises. The newspaper did not comment on Nash's former association with the building.[22]

There is no corresponding entry on the CT for the other end of The Arcade, although that lease covers only the land (it was on a Borough Council reserve). The 1911-16 Wises Directories list other firms with links to JA Nash & Co as occupying that building. However, Nonpareil occupied it as part of what then became 7,500 square feet of showroom arcade, from mid-February 1914.  The 1920-22 Directories state that Nonpareil Motor Co had its motor garage there.[23]

The firm probably remained in this building until its lease ran out in 1921, and its departure marked the end of the two buildings being operated together as an arcade.

Subsequent occupants
One early tenant that still exists is Goldfinch & Cousins. Its founders were Vic Goldfinch and Fred Cousins, who had learned their trade at McGruers Ltd and Collinson & Cunninghams, before enlisting for service during World War One. They opened the shop soon after the war, and remained there until about 1925, when they moved to a shop in the former Clarendon Hotel building. When that building was demolished in 1975, the firm moved to its present location, still in the same part of The Square.[24]

Another well-known long-time local firm was Arthur J Berryman's music shop, which was described as The Home of Music and later of radio. Berryman bought the firm in 1920 and had moved it into this building by 1925. C Tilleard Natusch & Sons drew plans dated March 1928 for the Mowlem Estate. A note on the back said that these were for Berryman's Music Shop. They show the shop fronts and entrances to the building were being significantly altered from an inverted 'V' shape that had doors opening on an angle to the road. The new doors to the two shops were side by side and parallel to the road, but were still set into the building as far has they had previously been. At that time there were no other doors at the front of the building, as there are at present.[25]

When in 1932 Arthur Berryman realised that Broadway was becoming one of the city's chief shopping areas, he relocated there, where his former building and Berrymans Lane still survive.[26]

Triggs & Denton (Nth. Is) Ltd occupied the building for at least thirty years, before moving to Cuba Street. Subsequent tenancies appear to have been relatively short-lived.

It is not known when the upper floor began being used as a billiard room. However, the door on the left side of the building that gives it separate street access does not appear to have been present in photos dating from the mid-1960s (ie. Photo Ho14). The Deluxe Billiard Room last appeared in the phonebook in 1991 after at least two decades. However, it may have spent its last years in the neighbouring Union Building. The name McConachy Hall, that was associated with the building in the early 1990s, was perhaps in memory of Clark McConachy MBE (1895-1980), who is described as New Zealand's greatest billiards and snooker player.[27]

In 1966, the Mowlem family sold the building to Peter Nicoletatos, a local fish shop proprietor, and his wife Eva. He died in Greece on 23 April 1982, and accordingly in 1983, the property was transmitted to Eva Nicoletatos as survivor[28], and then transferred to Ruapapa Ltd, in 1984. It was sold to Cecilia Mary Stewart, company director of Levin, in 1989. Then in 1993 it was sold to the current owners, Hoi Chi Lee, restaurateur, and Joe Woo Sing, photographer (jointly inter se ½ share) and Cheng Yun Kam Lee, restaurateur, and Joe Woo Sing, photographer (jointly inter se ½ share), as tenants in common.

Shop nearest Rangitikei St
Wises 1922 - Coleman Pl - Warren & Ganderton, cycle engineers
Wises 1925 - Coleman Pl - Arthur J Berryman, music dealer
Wises 1936 - Coleman Pl - EB Borham, radio dealer (left 1935)[29]
Wises 1939-44 - 27 Coleman Pl - HH Blandford Ltd, furriers
Wises 1950-60 - 27 Coleman Pl - FG Everson Ltd, furriers
Photos Stc39 & Ho14 - 27 Coleman Pl - Smiths Women's Wear Specialists (moved out late 1970s)
Phonebook 1991-94 - 27 Coleman Pl - Vegas Video Games
1996-c1999 - 27 Coleman Pl - Sun Sing Restaurant
2009 - 27 Coleman Pl - Le Petit Bistro (since closed)[30]
2010 - Noodles 'n Dumplings

Shop nearest George St
Wises 1922-25 - Coleman Pl -Goldfinch & Cousins, drapers
Stones 1933 - Coleman Pl - Mrs Mabel Isabel Lewis, arts & crafts shop
Wises 1936 - Coleman Pl - nil
Wises 1939-60 - 25 Coleman Pl - Triggs & Denton (Nth Is) Ltd. leather goods
1968-late 1970s - 25 Coleman Pl - Athenia Milk Bar (Bdg Permit records & phonebook)
By 1996 - The two shops amalgamated as a restaurant

Photo ST67 - Deluxe Billiard Room (1973 - phonebook c1991, but possibly in the Union Building next door by 1985)
Phonebook 1992-94 - McConachy Hall           
2010 - unknown

Photographic Record
This building appears in a number photos held in the Photographic Collection at the PN City Library. These show changes of occupancy and signage over the years, but the only noticeable differences relate to the verandah.

Additions & Alterations
PNCC's Building Permit records (file C70/27) on this building relate to the conversion in 1996 of what appears to have already been by then a single shop (as it also appears to have been before 1921) into the short-lived Sun Sing Restaurant. The cost was $64,000, and the designer was Theos Design & Draughting. The work included installing the kitchen and other restaurant trappings, removing the former window display area inside the front windows, and changing the front double doors so that they swung outwards instead of inwards. This modified the Natusch alterations dating from 1928.[32]

An item in the Building Permit file for the neighbouring building (C70/29-31) is an application dated 1 February 1968 to convert a shop to a milk bar, snack shop and cafeteria for P Nicoletatos. This was identified as the Athenia Milk Bar, although it soon became the Athenian Lounge. This was at 25 Coleman Place until at least the 1977 phonebook, but by 1980 was listed in the phonebook as 29 Coleman Place[33]. It therefore appears to have moved to the neighbouring building.

Architectural Description 

The building is designed in the Italianate Palazzo style with symmetrical façade, Classical details such as a pediment as part of the parapet, pilasters on opposite corners, an ornate cornice, and vertically proportioned windows with architraves all on the above-verandah part of the façade.  The below verandah has been modified from the original. 

A ground floor plan available from the PNCC archives shows a stair to the first floor on the Hallenstein's side with access from the street.  The remainder of the ground floor plan shows an open planned restaurant with kitchen and toilet facilities at the rear.

The exterior is cement rendered and newspaper descriptions state that it was constructed of brick.

Statement of Significance 

This building has moderatelocal significance for historical and design values, representivity of building style and level of external authenticity. 

This building has moderatehistoric values in its associations with builder/designer, Charles Blackbourn, a successful local building contractor, who built a number of buildings in the city with the former Ballroom Astoria being another surviving example of his work. The building is associated with the Mowlem family who also owned 161-163 The Square.  It is one of the few buildings in the central city over 100 years oldgiving it high age value and it also has highhistoric values as an early mall.

The building has moderate design values as a representative example of the Edwardian Italianate style, a popular for commercial buildings in the late Victorian and Edwardian period.

The original and later ownership and tenants reflects a moderate level of continuity as a typical pattern of similar commercial buildings throughout the city.

The building has high design values as one of a number of buildings in the Cuba Street, George Street, Coleman Place, and The Square area which, when considered collectively, form a coherent group of buildings of a similar age, general style, form, use, and scale.

The exterior of the building hasmoderatelevels of authenticity

[1]Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Vol 6, (Wellington, 1906), pp 674-5, 'Blackbourn, Charles William'

[2] 1877 photo is GC Petersen, The Pioneering Days of Palmerston North (Palmerston North 1952) Photo between pages 76 & 77. Also SQ112, (c1889) Photographic Collection, PN City Library. The building is the dark building third on the left side of the Theatre Royal; and Manawatu Evening Standard 12 March 1886 3(1)

[3]Manawatu Evening Standard 16 August 1905 5(2), 17 August 1905 5(1); Manawatu Daily Times 21 August 1905 1(3)

[4]Manawatu Daily Times 1 December 1902 2(4 & 6), Manawatu Evening Standard 1 December 1902 4(2), however, the latter is barely legible. Presumably this was a press release by the company.

[5]Manawatu Daily Times, 25 July 1952, p8. Nash is also the subject of a biography in Vol 4 of The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (Wellington, 1998) pp.370-371, however, this devotes only about four lines to Nash's extensive business career.

[6]Manawatu Evening Standard 28 August 1948 5(4)

[7]Manawatu Daily Times 26 October 1905 1(7)

[8]Manawatu Evening Standard 17 March 1906 4(1)

[9]Wise's Directories of 1902 and 1914; Manawatu Evening Standard 7 June 1906 7(3-4)

[10]Manawatu Evening Standard 9 May 1933, 6(7); Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Vol. 1 (Wellington, 1897), p. 1190. See also the PDC department store history published in the (unnumbered) book From Swamp to City (Palmerston North, 1937).

[11]Manawatu Evening Standard 7 June 1906 7(3-4)

[12] 'Nash, James Alfred,' in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Vol 4, 1921-1940, (Wellington, 1998), pp. 370-371; Manawatu Evening Standard 7 June 1906 7(3-4), 9 May 1933, 6(7); Manawatu Times 25 July 1952 p3.

[13]Manawatu Evening Standard 15 January 1908, 2(1-2)

[14]Manawatu Evening Standard 1 June 1908 2(1-2) & 4(7)

[15] Gilchrist died on 20 September 1938, however, no obituary was traced. PNCC Terrace End Cemetery online record. He was possibly part of the hardware firm Permain & Gilchrist in 1902 (re Manawatu Daily Times 1 December 1902, 1(5)

[16]Manawatu Evening Standard 12 January 1934 1(1); Headstone at Masterton Cemetery per Cemetery microfiche, PN Public Library.

[17] Note that CT WN282/160 was not sighted for this study (its number is mis-recorded on the subsequent CT). However, its contents are listed as part of the 1980 study by Victoria University students in Research File A175/154, George Street-Cuba Street-Coleman Place, Ian Matheson City Archives, PN City Library.

[18]Manawatu Evening Standard 23 November 1925 7(2), 26 August 1926 7(1)

[19] Refer to the 'Pink & Collison Building' at 260-262 Cuba Street, which the Clarkson firm later occupied.

[20]Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Vol 6, Taranaki, Hawkes Bay, Wellington (Christchurch, 1908), p685

[21] Ibid. p685

[22]Manawatu Evening Standard 18 November 1911 5(6)

[23] See also: 'The Arcade - Cuba Street's' history, and also the plan of DP 2639

[24]Manawatu Evening Standard 16 July 1972, p 6

[25] Natusch plan dated March 1928, misfiled as Plan 530/196-198, PNCC 4/13/6, Ian Matheson City Archives, PN City Library. Earlier in 1928, Natusch designed the Mowlem building in Cuba Street (latterly Costa's) on behalf of the (Fred) Mowlem Estate, resulting in the filing error, as these alterations were for the (Mary) Mowlem Estate.

[26] Robert H Billens & H Leslie Verry, From Swamp to City (Palmerston North, 1937) 'Berryman's Radio & Music shop' article (no page numbers in this book)

[27] NAC McMillan, 'McConachy, Clark', in TheDictionary of New Zealand Biography, Vol 5 (Wellington, 2000) pp307-8

[28]Manawatu Evening Standard 27 April 1982, p23

[29] A regular advert in the Evening Standard of 30 July 1935 1(3) advises that Borham's Radio Service is relocating from Coleman Place to The Square.

[31]Manawatu Evening Standard, regular advert 16 October 1912 1(3)

[32] Natusch plan dated March 1928, misfiled as Plan 530/196-198, PNCC 4/13/6, Ian Matheson City Archives, PN City Library. Permit No. 431 dated 29 May 1928 covered these alterations, which were undertaken by HE Townsend.

[33] The intervening phonebooks (1978-79) were not available.